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Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad 2009 B.Pharm Statistical methods & Comp Aplications-Descriptive - Question Paper

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Code No: R7203 JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD B.Pharmacy II year - I-Sem. - I Mid - Term Examinations, Aug/Sept. - 2009 STATISTICAL METHODS AND COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Descriptive Exam - Question Bank Unit - I

1    Write a brief note on the various methods of collecting primary data.

2    What the secondary sources of data collection methods

3    List the merits and limitations of primary data source.

4    List the merits and limits of secondary data source

5    Briefly discuss the different probability sampling methods

6    a Write a short note on determination of sample size b Explain sampling and non-sampling errors.

7    a What are the different types of classification of Data b What are the objects of data classification.

8    Write short notes on

a Discrete frequency distribution b. Primary Data c Stratified sampling    d. Class Intervals and Mid points

9    a Write the general rules for constructing diagrams

b Represent the following data by a suitable diagram.

College: A B C D E F Pass % 55 62 81 44 88 72

10    a Write a short note on two-dimensional bar diagrams.

b Represent the following data in a two-dimensional bar diagram

Item    Commodity X    Commodity Y

Qty sold    80    120

RM cost    50    40

Overheads    40    40

Profit    10    30

11 Draw a pie-diagram of the following data:

Item    Amount spend Rs.

Food    3000

Clothing    500

Education    1500

Others    2500

12 Represent the following by means of a Histogram

Variable 80-90 90-100 100-110 110-120 120-130

Frequency 11 28 38    49    33    Cont.....[2]


Code No: R7203

13    a Write a brief note on cumulative frequency curves

b Differentiate between frequency polygon and smoothed frequency curve

14    Draw a frequency polygon from the following data

Marks    5-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-40 40-50

No. of students 3    8 14 19 8 4

15    Write short notes on:

a Pictographs b. Cartograms c. Range chart d. Histogram

16    Write a brief note on 2-dimensional diagrams

17    a Write a brief note on 3-dimensional diagrams. b List the limitations of 3-dimensional diagrams.

18    Calculate standard deviation from the following data 15 10 18 8 9 7 8 5

19    Calculate standard deviation from the following data Variable 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 Frequency 3 8 20 55 75 18 11

20    Calculate standard deviation from the following data

Class interval 11-13 13-15 15-17 17-19 19-21 21-23 Frequency    15 30 40 54 24 7

21    The mean and standard deviation of three items are shown below. Find the item which is more stable.

Item    Mean value Standard Deviation

A    15.5    4.9

B    22.0    3.5

C    26.0    5.8

22    From the prices of two items A and B, find which is more stable A 35 55 58 56 49 52 50 51 49 55

B 108 105 105 106 110 111 102 109 107 107

23    a Calculate the probability of picking a card that is a heart or a spade.

b A bag contains 30 balls numbered 1 to 20. One ball is drawn at random . Find the probability that the ball drawn will be a multiple of 3 or 5.

24    a Find the probability of drawing a queen, a king and a knave from a pack of cards in

three consecutive draws when the cards drawn are not replaced.

A fair dice is tossed twice. b Find the probability of getting 1, 2 or 3 on the first toss and 1,2, 3 and 5 on the second toss.

25    A firm produces tablets in three plants with hourly production of 5000, 10000 and 20000 respectively. It was found that the defective tables produced by the three plants are 0.005, 0.008 and 0.010. If a tablet is selected at random and found to be defective. Find

a)    From which plant the tablet has come.

b)    What is the probability that it is from the first plant.

26    Three machines A, B and C manufactures bolts in a factory @ 25%, 35% and 40% of the total production. The defective bolts are found to be 5%, 4%, and 2% respectively. When a bolt is drawn at random and found to be defective, what is the probability it was manufactured by machine A, B and C.

27    A Eight coins are tossed at a time. Find the probability of getting

a) atleast 6 heads b) 3 heads and 5 tails.

b A coin is tossed six times. What is the probability of obtaining four ore more heads.

28    Fit a binomial distribution for the following data.

Variable X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frequency 5 20 21 10 8 5 5 1 2 2 1

29    Fit a Poisson distribution in respect of the number of defects per unit in a sample of 330 units manufactured

No. of defects    0    1    2    3    4

No. of units    213    92    20    3    2

30    The mean weight of 500 students was found to be 78 kgs and the standard deviation of 8 kgs. Assuming the weights are normally distribution, find how many students weigh between

a) 65 to 70 kgs b) 75 to 85 kgs

31    a A random sample of size 100 is taken from a population with a standard deviation of

5.1. Given the sample mean as 21.6, work out 95% confidence limits for the population mean.

b In a family of 4 children each, find the number of families having 2 boys if there are 500 families.

32    A Calculate Karl Pearson's coefficient of skewness

Class interval 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 Frequency 5 8 22 35 30

33    The mean and standard deviation of the marks obtained by 1000 students in an examination are 34.4 and 16.5 respectively. Assuming the normality of the distribution, find the approximate number of students expected to obtain marks between 30 and 70.


Code No: R7203 UNIT 2

35    a Discuss the various types of Correction.

b What are the methods of studying correction.

36    Write a brief note on scatter diagram method. What are its merits and limitations.

37    Calculate coefficient of correlation from the following data A 50 75 100 150 200 250 300

B 30 50 60 80 100 110 130

38    Calculate correlation coefficient and its probable error.

Size    10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 15-16

Frequency 70 66 52 50 45 38

39    Two random variables have the regression 3x + 2y = 26 and 6x + y =31, Find the mean values and correction coefficient between x and y.

40    Calculate the correlation coefficient between x and y X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Y    6 8 12 16 28 25 36 41 49 40

41    Write short notes on a Positive correction

b Method of least squares c Non-linear correlation d Coefficient of determination

42    a A student calculates correlation coefficient as +0.72 for a question comprising of 5

pairs of observations and concludes that there is a high degree of correction between the variables. Justify his comment. b The correlation coefficient is 0.917 and its probable error as 0.034. What would be the value of N.

43    Calculate Karl Pearson's coefficient of correction between the height of husbands X and height of wives Y.

X 55 57 62 64 68 70 72 74

Y    50 51 59 58 60 64 68 69

44    a Define Regression. What are the uses of Regression. b Write a brief note on Regression lines

45    Graphically show the regression equations.

X on Y : X = 16.4 - 1.3Y

Y    on X : Y = 11.9 - 0.63X

46 a Find the two regression equations from the following values:

X    Y

Mean    65    67

Standard deviation 2.5 3.5 Correlation coefficient 0.80

b Estimate the value of X when y =







Standard deviation



Correlation coefficient 0.66

47    Calculate the two regression equations

X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Y    9 8 10 12 11 13 15 16 18

48    The two equations of a random variable are as below 3X + 2Y = 26

6 X + Y = 31

Find the mean values. If the variance of X is 25 find the standard deviation of Y.

49    From the Data given below find

a)    The two regression equations

b)    The likely marks in statistics when the marks in computers are 30.

Marks (Statistics) 43 46 49 41 36 32 31 30 33 39 Marks (Computers) 22 26 30 31 35 29 36 34 32 36

50    Calculate the two regression equations using the method of least squares.

X 14 16 18 20 24 30 32

Y    50 60 65 69 72 77 79

51    a If the two regression coefficients are - 0.8 and -0.75, what is the value of correlation

coefficient. b From the following data find

a)    Two regression equations

b)    Likely sales when expenditure is Rs. 30 crores

c)    Advertisement budget needed to attain a sales target of 135 crores

Advertisement Exp XRs.    Sales in Crores Y

Mean 20    120

Standard deviation 4    21 Correlation coefficient 0.72

52    Height of fathers and sons are given below. Find the height of son when the height of father is 172 cms.

X (Father's height in cms) 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190

Y    (sons' height in cms) 145 152 158 159 166 165 172 178 180

53    Fit a curve to form y = a + bx + cx2

X = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Y    = 2.3 5.2 9.7 16.5 29.4 35.5 54.5


Code No: R7203

Describe Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation. What does it indent to measure.

Distinguish between positive correlation and negative correction. Explain the significance of correlation.

"Even a high degree of correlation does not mean that a relationship of cause and effect exists between the two correlated variables" Explain with example.

Distinguish giving suitable examples:

a)    Simple and, partial correlation

b)    Linear and non-linear correlation

Prove that Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation always lines between 1.

Give an example each of 'spurious correlation' and 'non-sense or chance correlation'.

How is scatter diagram useful in the study of correlation.

Distinguish between simple, partial and multiple correlation.

The following data relate to the price and supply of a commodity during a period 8 years.

Price Rs/kg 10 12 18 16 15 19 18 17

Supply    30 35 45 44 42 48 47 48

Calculate the coefficient of correlation between the two series.

Calculate the coefficient of correlation between X and Y from the following series, whose no. of observations are 10 each:

Series X Series Y Mean    20    16

Sum of squares of deviations From their respective means 30    108

Total of products of deviations

of X and Y from their respect-

tive means    35


Discuss in brief the procedure of hypotheses testing.

Write in detail about Type I error and Type II errors in hypotheses testing Write short notes on:

a. Null Hypotheses b. Alternate Hypotheses c. Significance level d. Type II error

Write short notes on:

a. Large sample and small sample b. Non-Parametric tests c. Student's Test d. iducial limits

a A coin was tossed 500 times. The tail turned up 230 times. Test the hypotheses that the coin is unbiased.

b In a hospital 1200 females and 1300 male babies were born. Do these figures confirm the hypotheses that males and females are born in equal number.

In a random sample of 1000 men, 600 are found to be smokers. In another sample of a different city of 600 men 400 are found to be smokers. Do the figures indicate that there is a significant difference in the habit of smokers in two cities. Test the hypotheses at 1% level of significance.

The mean life time of a sample of 500 bulbs is found to be 1570 hours with a standard deviation of 100 hours. Test the hypotheses that the mean life of bulbs is 1600 hours. Also set up 99% confidence limits of the life of the population.

a.    Write a brief note on t-distribution.

b.    List the applications of t-distribution

Write short notes on:

a. Degrees of freedom    b. Population mean and sample mean

c.    Table values    d. Pascal's triangle

A random sample of size 16 has 53 as mean. The sum of squares of the deviations from the mean is 135. Can this sample be regarded as taken from a population have mean as 56.

Apply t-test and obtain 99% fiducial limits.

A factory producing 50000 pairs of shoes daily. From a sample of 300 pairs 2% were found to be defective. Estimate the number of pairs that can be reasonably expected to be substandard in the daily production.

In an experiment on immunization of cattle, the following results were obtained. Calculate Chi-square for one degree of freedom and give your inference.

Affected    Not affected

Inoculated    12    26

Not inoculated    18    6

200 digits are chosen at random from a set of tables. The frequencies of the digits are as below: Apply chi-square test and test the hypotheses.

Digits    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Frequency 15 14 22 21 16 24 22 20 19 18

A 10 digit number is formed using the digits 0 to 9 only once. Find the probability that the number is divisible by 4.

The mean and standard deviation of the marks obtained by 1000 students in an examination are 34.4 and 16.5 respectively. Assuming the normality of the distribution, find the approximate number of students expected to obtain marks between 30 and 70.

79    A set of 5 coins are tossed 3200 times. The no. of heads appearing each time are given below. Test the hypotheses that the coins are unbiased.

No. of heads    0 1 2 3 4    5

Frequency    70 550 1120 900 70 40

80    In a survey of 200boys of which 75 were intelligent, 40 had skilled fathers while 85 of the unintelligent boys had unskilled fathers. Do these figures support the hypotheses that skilled fathers have intelligent boys. Apply chi-square test of 1 degree freedom for 5% level of significance.

81    A controlled experiment was conducted to test the efficacy of a new drug. The result of the analysis of 500 cases were as below:

Cured Aggravated No effect Treatment given    200    40    60

No treatment    120    30    50

Use chi-square test and comment on the effectiveness of the drug.

82    The mean of a sample of 20 bulbs was found to be 1281 hours with a standard deviation of 385 hours. Another sample of 35 bulbs was taken from a separate batch whose mean life was 1080 hours with a standard deviation of 440 hours. Is there any significant difference between the means of two batches?. Apply t-test.

83    Ten syrup bottles were taken at random from an automatic filling machine. The mean weight of 10 bottles was found to be 58 gms and standard deviation of 1.2 gms. Does the sample mean differ significantly from the population weight of 60 gms. Apply t-test and comment.

84    Write short notes on:

ANOVA Uses of F-test One-way classification

85    Two samples are drawn from normal populations. Test whether the samples have the same variance at 5% level of significance:

Sample 1 60 62 70 72 76 80 82 85 Sample 2 61 65 60 72 78 85 63 86 80 88

86    The following table gives the yields on 15 sample plots under three varieties of seeds. Find if the average yields of land under different varieties show differences.



















86    A test was given to 5 students chosen at random from three different universities. Their

scores were found to be:






50 60






50 40






70 60


Using Anova show if there is any significant difference between the scores of students.

The retail prices of a commodity were chosen at random from four shops of three different cities. The data is tabulated below:

City A





City B





City C





Does the data indicate that the prices in the three cities differ significantly.

88    Data obtained from two sets of results with regard to the number of flowers per plant. Analyse using t-test and give your inference.

Set 1    set 2

Mean 15.65    10.15

Variance 6.20    7.80

Sample size 30    32

89    The following table shows the yields in tones per acre from a particular type of soil treated with manures X Y and Z.

A 48 49 50 49

B 47    49 48 48

C 49    51 50 50

Find a)    mean yields for the different treatments

b)    Total variation

c)    Grand mean for all the treatments

d)    Variation within the treatments

90    An experiment is performed to determine the yields of 5 different varieties of vegetables. Four plots of land were assigned to each variety and the yields in tones per acre are given below


























Determine if there is a significant difference in yields at 5% level of significance.

91    Discuss the role of hypothesis in making a research design. What are the characteristics of a good hypothesis.

92    Differential between the following concepts:

a)    Null Hypotheses and Alternative hypothesis

b)    Statistics and Parameter.

Type 1 and Type 2 error


93    What is Latin square. List out its significance.

94    What is a randomized block design. Explain with an example.

Write short notes on:

a. Design of experiments b. Randomized block design c. Latin squares d. CRD




Give an analysis of variance table for RBD and state the assumption and the hypothesis to be tested.

Three varieties of rice A, B and C were tested. The plants, the varieties are shown in each plot and yields obtained in kg. are given in the following table.










Show the analysis of variance and get your inference.

Three varieties of wheat A, B and C are tested in a complete randomized design with the replications. The layout and the yield being shown in the table below. Set up the ANOVA table and test whether the varieties differ significantly among themselves with regard to the yield.



A 20

B 18

A 16

C 25

C 22

C 28

A 21

B 20

A 20

B 77

B 15

C 32

B 25

C 28

A 23

An experiment is performed to determine the yields of 5 different varieties of a vegetable A, B, C, D E. Four plots of lands are assigned to each variety and the yields in tones per hectre are shown in the table.


























Determine if there is any significant difference in yields at 1% significance level

Three varieties of seeds A, B and C are tested in a RBD with four replications. The plot yield in kgs are shown below:


























Analyse the above and experience and

give your inference.

What is statistical Quality control. Point out its role and limitations.






Briefly discuss the uses of statistical quality control and control charts. Discuss briefly the need and utility of statistical quality control in industry. Explain briefly about the construction and uses of C-Chart and R-Chart How do you construct a Mean-chart and Range-Chart. Explain their uses.

Quality control is maintained in a factory with the help of mean and standard deviation. Ten items are chosen in every sample. 18 samples in all were chosen where combined mean was 595.8 and combined standard deviation was 8.28. Determine the 35 limits for mean.

Explain the construction and uses of mean and range charts in quality control.

Explain the following terms"

a) Control charts for variables b) Control charts for attributes

Draw the control chart for rejected items from the following data. Give your inference. Sample    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

No.inspected 200 150 300 150 100 200 250 200 200 150 No. rejected 5 6 8 4 3 6 8 6 6 7

The following are the number of defects noted in the final inspection of 30 bales of woolen cloth. Plot the given data and comment on the state of control.

0, 3, 1, 4, 2, 2, 1, 3, 5, 0, 0, 1, 2, 4, 3, 0, 0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 0,9,4,1,0,3,2,2,1,3

The table given below shows the number of defects observed in 8 woolen carpets passing as satisfactory. Construct the control chart for the number of defects:

Carpet No    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

No. of defects    2 5 5 6 1 5 1 7

An inspection of 10 samples of size 400 each from 10 lots revealed the following number of defective units:

17, 15, 14, 26, 9, 4, 19, 12, 9, 15

Calculate control limits for the number of defective units.

Establish control limits for the faction defective chart, where the production per day is 100 units.

No. of defectives 10, 5, 10, 12, 11, 9, 22, 4, 12, 24

Ten pieces of cloth out of different rolls of equal length contained the following number of defects:

1, 3, 5, 0, 6, 0, 9, 4, 4, 3

Draw a control chart for the number of defects and state whether the process is in control.

A machine is set to deliver packets of a given weight. 8 samples of size 5 each were recorded. Analysis shows the following:

Mean 15 17 15 18 17 14 18 15 Range 7 7 4 9 8 7 12 4

Calculate the values of Central line, and the control limits for mean chart and the range chart. Comment on the state of control.

A plant produces rolls of paper. The number of defects observed by the inspection of 20 rolls are as follows:

12, 6, 18, 4, 5, 2, 4, 7, 12, 14, 8, 11, 14, 21, 21, 10, 12, 9, 13, 10 Comment on the state of control.

In a certain sampling inspection, the number of defectives found in 10 samples of 200 each are as follows:

16, 18, 11, 18, 21, 10, 20, 18, 17 and 21 Determine UCL, LCL and comment on the control.






Describe the methods and importance of SQC in pharmaceutical industry.

What are the objectives of statistical quality control in an organization. How the process control is achieved with the help of control chart.

Discuss the usefulness of control charts from the producer's and consumer's point of view.

The following data refers to the visual defects found during the inspection of the first 10 samples of size 50 each from a lot of vehicles:

No. of defectives 4 3 2 3 44 4 1 3 2 Analyse the above comment on the state of control.


Code No: R7403 JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD B. Pharmacy III year - I-Sem.- I Mid - Term Examinations, Aug/Sept. - 2009

PHARMACOGNOSY - II Descriptive Exam - Question Bank Unit - I

1.    Define glycosides. Classify glycosides giving suitable examples.

2.    Give the Stas-Otto method for the isolation of glycosides.

3.    Give one example of a drug from steroidal saponin, triterpenoidal saponin, cardiac glycoside, anthracene glycoside and bitter glycoside category along with its biological source and major use.

4.    What are saponin glycosides? Give the general tests to identify saponin glycosides.

5.    How is saponin glycoside classified? Mention the physicochemical properties of glycosides.

6.    Write the significance of steroidal saponins.

7.    Give the pharamcognosy of Liquorice.

8.    Write the pharmacognostic details of Ginseng.

9.    What are cardioactive glycosides? How are they classified?

10.    What are the tests performed to identify cardioactive glycosides. Give its details.

11.    Discuss the structure and stereochemistry of cardioactive glycosides.

12.    Write the mechanism of action of Digitalis glycosides.

13.    Write the inter-relationship between the glycosides of Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata.

14.    Discuss the pharmacognosy of Strophanthus.

15.    Give the chemical structures of -

a)    Aloe-emodin

b)    Digoxin

c)    Barbaloin

d)    Diosgenin

e)    Glycyrrhetinic acid

16.    What are the adulterants of Digitalis and how can they be detected?

17.    Give the powder characteristics of Senna with neat labeled diagrams.

18.    Give the biological source, chemical constituents and uses of Rhubarb.

19.    Write about the general and specific tests performed to differentiate the different varieties of Aloe.

20.    What are bitter glycosides? Give the biological source, chemical constituents and uses of Gentian.


21.    What are alkaloids? Differentiate between true, pseudo and amino alkaloids.

22.    Write about the role played by alkaloids in plants.

23.    Discuss the physical properties of alkaloids with suitable examples.

24.    What are the chemical tests for alkaloids? Discuss them.


Code No: R7403

25.    Give the chemical classification of alkaloids with the basic ring structure and examples.

26.    Write about the isolation and extraction of alkaloids .

27.    Give the pharmacognosy of Lobelia.

28.    Write about Vitali-Morin test and its significance.

29.    Give the pharmacognostic details of Belladonna (Deadly nightshade).

30.    Write the biological source, chemical tests and uses of Cinchona bark.

31.    Write about the adulterants and substituents of Belladonna.

32.    Write the biological source, chemical constituents and uses of Rauwolfia.

33.    Explain the microscopy of Nux-vomica with the help of a neat labeled diagram.

34.    Explain the life cycle of Ergot with the help of a neat labeled diagram.

35.    How is opium cultivated, collected and prepared for the market?

36.    Write about the chemical tests and uses of Opium.

37.    Give the chemical structure of -

a)    Quinine

b)    Reserpine

c)    Codeine

d)    Caffeine

e)    Ephedrine

38.    Write short notes on Solanum.

39.    Give the biological source, chemical constituents and uses of Tea.

40.    Write the pharmacognosy of Pilocarpus.

41.    Write a note on Vinca alkaloids.

42.    Write about the following specific tests conducted for the following alkaloids -

a)    Thalleoquin test

b)    Murexide test

c)    Vitali-Morin test for tropane alkaloids.


43.    What are tannins? Give their properties.

44.    What is Goldbeaters skin test?

45.    What are the tests of tannins.

46.    Give the classification of tannins.

47.    Write short notes on pseudo tannins.

48.    Give the biological source, active constituents and uses of any two tannin containing drugs.

49.    Give the significance of tannins.


Code No: R7403

50.    Differentiate between hydrolysable and condensed tannins.

51.    Give the chemical structures of -

a)    Gallic acid

b)    Catechol

c)    Glucogallin

d)    Pyrogallol

e)    Ellagic acid

52.    Give the biological source and morphology of Myrobalan.

53.    Write about the pharmacognosy of Arjuna.

54.    Differentiate between Black Catechu and Pale Catechu.

55.    Write the biological source, chemical constituents and uses of Kattha.

56.    Write the biological source, chemical constituents and uses of Gambir.

57.    Give the details of test for Gambier-fluorescein and Matchstick test for Catechin.

58.    Write about the manufacture of Black Catechu.

59.    Give the biological source, chemical constituents and uses of Myrobalan.

60.    Write about the cultivation and collection of Gambier.

61.    Give the biological source, chemical constituents and adulterants of Arjuna.

62.    Write about the cultivation and collection of Arjuna.


63.    Define resins.

64.    Discuss the chemical nature of resins.

65.    Classify resins with suitable examples.

66.    Write about isolation of resins.

67.    Write the biological source, active constituents and uses of any two resin containing drugs.

68.    Write the chemical structure of -

a)    Podophyllotoxin

b)    Coniferyl benzoate

69.    Differentiate between Siam and Sumatra benzoin.

70.    Write about the identification tests of Benzoin.

71.    What is Tolu balsam? How can it be identified?

72.    Write about the chemical constituents and adulterants of Tolu balsam.

73.    Give the pharmacognosy of Podophyllum.

74.    Write a short note on Podophyllum resin.

75.    Describe the morphology of Podophyllum.

76.    Explain the microscopical characters of Podophyllum with the help of a neat labeled diagram.

77.    Write a note on the chemical constituents and uses of Podophyllum.

78.    How is asafetida collected and prepared for the market?

79.    Give the chemical structures of -

a)    Umbelliferone

b)    Podophyllotoxin

80.    Describe the morphology of Asafoetida and Tolu balsam.

81.    Give the biological source, chemical constituents and uses of Asafoetida.

82.    Write about the identification tests of Asafoetida.


Code No: R7404 JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD B. Pharmacy III year - I-Sem.- I Mid - Term Examinations, Aug/Sept. - 2009

PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY-I Descriptive Exam - Question Bank Unit - I

1.    How following parameters effects the bioavailability of drug

a. particle size    b. wetting c.density d. solubility

2.    Define hydrolysis with example. Which factors increases the hydrolysis and how can prevent it.

3.    Differentiate oxidation- reduction . Give one example . How can prevent them.

4.    How recemization affects the bioavailability of drug. Explain

5.    How polymerization affects stability and formulation of drug. Explain.

6.    Define prodrug and write its applications.

7.    What are the pharmacokinetic applications of prodrugs.

8.    Write ideal prodrug properties and write its limitations.

9.    Name , define and compare the two categories of prodrugs.

10.    What is meant by stability testing. How it can be performed for finished product.

11.    Write ICH guidelines for finished product testing.

12 Write short note on a. Dissolution    b. Oxidation

13.    How dielectric constant and organoleptic properties affects the bioavailability of drug.

14.    Write the principle for hydrolysis with two examples and how it affects the stability of drug.

15.    How formulation of solid dosage forms affected by oxidation.


16.    Classify the different vehicles. Explain them with examples.

17.    What is meant by non-aqueous vehicles and hydroxylated compounds. Explain with examples.

18.    Where the stabilizers are used. Write their classification with examples.

19.    Write short note on a. Synergists b. Preservatives.

20.    What are different organoleptic additives , explain them with examples .

21.    What are the different solubility enhancement procedures adopted in pharmaceutical dosage forms . explain briefly.

22.    What are the different liquid formulations for internal use . write their formulation additives.

23.    What are the different liquid formulations for external use . write their formulation additives.

24.    Classify the emulsifying agents . write two examples each class.

25.    Classify the suspending agents . write two examples each class.

26.    Write the formulation of emulsions.

27.    What are the stability problems associated with emulsions . How can correct them.

28.    Write the evalution of emulsions.


Code No: R7404

29.    Write the formulation of suspensions.

30.    Differentiate flocculating and nOn-flocculating systems.

31.    Write the evalution of suspensions.

32.    Classify the suspending agents with one examples.

33.    Write the evalution of clear liquids.


34.    . Define the following

a. Epidermatic b. Endodermatic c. Diadermatic    d. Ointment e. paste.

35.    Write the mechanism of drug penetration and factors affecting drug penetration.

36.    What are different semi-solid bases. Explain with two examples.

37.    How the selection of bases are done.

38.    Write the general formulation of semi-solids.

39.    What are the special types ointments.

40.    Write the evalution of ointments.

41.    Differentiate ointments, pastes and creams and write their identification tests.

42.    What is clear gel manufacturing procedures. Write in detail.

43.    Write the evalution for packaging for semi -solids.

44.    Write the different methods of ointments preparation.

45.    Write the different methods of pastes preparation.

46.    Write the different methods of creams preparation.

47.    Enumerate different ointment bases.

48.    Write the evalution of ointments.


49.    Write formulation of aerosols.

50.    Classify propellants with examples and write ideal properties of propellants.

51.    What are the different components used in aerosol packaging.

52.    How the aerosols are prepared.

53.    Write the pharmaceutical applications of aerosols.

54.    What are the quality control test for pharmaceutical aerosols.

55.    Enumerate filling procedures for aerosols.

56.    Write the stability aspects of pharmaceutical aerosols.

57.    How the selection components are done for aerosols.

58.    What are the different types components used in aerosols.

59.    Write short note on a. actuators b. valves.

60.    Write short note on a. propellants b. evalution of aerosols.


Code No: BP414

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD B. Pharmacy IV year - I-Sem.- I Mid - Term Examinations, Aug/Sept. - 2009

PHARMACOLOGY-III Descriptive Exam - Question Bank Unit - I

1.    Define the following with the examples?

a) Carminatives b) demulcents c) Protectants d) astringents e) adsorbents

2.    Define antacids and write the classification of antacids with suitable examples?

3.    Discuss briefly the path physiology of peptic ulcer and list out the drugs used in treatment of ulcer based on their mechanism of action?

4.    Write a short note on Sucralfate and Omeprazole?

5.    Define anti-emetics and discuss about the drugs used in treatment of vomiting and nausea?

6.    Mention the drugs that cause vomiting?

7.    Discuss briefly Appetizers and Anorexiants with examples?

8.    Write in detail about the pharmacology and mechanism of action of

a)    Proton pump inhibitors

b)    Hitamine-2 receptor antagonists?

9.    Explain the role of various enzymes in digestion?

10.    How antibacterial drugs play a role in treatment of gastric ulcers?

11.    Write a note on Digestants and Mucolytics?

12.    Differentiate antacids and anti-seceretory agents?

13.    Write the uses and mechanism of action of the following

a) Ipecac b) Cimetidine c) Metronidazole d) Aluminum hydroxide e) Liquid paraffin?

14.    List out drugs acting on Gastro intestinal tract with examples?

15.    Define laxatives and classify them according to their mechanism of action with examples?

16.    Differentiate Emetics & Anti-emetics?

17.    Discuss the role of Oral rehydration therapy in treatment of Diarrhoea?

18.    Write a note on Anti-diarrheal drugs?

19.    Classify anti-ulcer drugs according to their mechanism of action with Suitable examples?

20.    Explain the role of Helico bacter pylori in the pathogenesis of peptic Ulcer and mention the drugs which inhibit that bacteria?


21.    Define the chemotherapy and write a brief note on chemotherapeutic agents used in various infections?

22.    Write a note on Classifications of chemotherapeutic agents?

23.    Discuss the mechanism of action of chemotherapeutic drugs?

24.    Write a note on antibacterials originated from fungi?

25.    Explain the mechanism of development of resistance to antibacterial drugs by bacteria?

26.    Define bacterial resistance and classify the different types of bacterial resistance?

27.    Write a note on Cross resistance?

28.    How resistance to antimicrobials can be prevented?

29.    Explain the adverse reactions of chemotherapeutic agents ?

30.    How antimicrobials are used as Prophylactic medicine?

31.    Discuss the benefits of combination of antimicrobials?

32.    Write in detail of Sulphonamides?

33.    Explain the antibacterial spectrum and mechanism of action of

a. Pencillins b) pencillinase resistant drugs?


Code No: BP414

34.    Discuss the therapeutic uses of sulphonamides?

35.    Write a note on various Penicillin preparations and list out their therapeutic uses?

36.    Write a note on Beta lactamase enzyme inhibitors?

37.    Explain anti -bacterial spectrum, mechanism of action & therapeutic uses of Co-trimoxazole?

38.    Discuss in detail about beta- lactam antibiotics?

39.    Compare narrow spectrum and broad spectrum antibiotics?

40.    What is super/supra infection and write a note on it?


41.    Write a note on the antibacterial drugs inhibiting protein synthesis?

42.    Discuss the antibacterial spectrum & mechanism of Tetracyclins?

43.    Outline the therapeutic uses & contraindications of tetracyclins?

44.    Discuss briefly bacteriostatic agents?

45.    Explain pharmacology & indications of Chloramphenicol?

46.    Write Briefly about Amino glycosides?

47.    Explain the pharmacokinetic parameters of various tetracyclins?

48.    Write two uses of the following?

a. tetracyclins b) flouroquinolones c) macrolides d) vancomycin

49.    Mention the bactericidal and bacterostatic drugs inhibit protein synthesis with their uses?

50.    Classify the flouroquinolones? Write their uses and contraindications?

51.    Mention the drugs that come under miscellaneous antibiotics & their therapeutic uses?

52.    Discuss the following a) erythromycin b) vancomycin?

53.    Name the antibiotic drug used in the treatment of following diseases along with their mechanism of action?

a) Typhoid b) urinary tract infections c) gonorrhea d) peptic ulcer

54.    Classify amino glycosides and write their therapeutic uses?

55.    Write the contraindications of Chloramphenicol, tetracyclins & Flouroquinolones?

56.    List out the various drugs used in treatment of Urinary tract Infection and Sexually transmitted diseases?

57.    Write a note Glycopeptide Antibiotics?

58.    Mention the drugs inhibit DNA gyrase enzyme & mention their Indications?

59.    Write the mechanism of action of the following?

a) erythromycins b) cephalosporins c) clindamycin d) streptomycin e) Ofloxacin

60.    Write a note on Cephalosporins?


61.    Discuss briefly the pathophysioloy of tuberculosis diseases and list Out the drugs used in its treatment?

62.    Discuss the First line antitubercular drugs?

63.    Discuss the Second line antitubercular drugs?

64.    Define Multi drug resistant TB and write the treatment for it?

65.    List out Various chemotherapeutic Regimens for Tuberculosis?

66.    Describe the pathogenesis of Leprosy and list out the antileprotic drugs?

67.    Write a note on Isoniazid?

68.    Explain the mechanism of action and adverse effects of first line Antitubercular drugs?

69.    Compare first line and second line anti TB drugs?

70.What    is extensively drug resistant Tuberculosis and list out the drugs used in its treatment?

71.    Briefly write about a) anti TB drugs b) antileprotic drugs?

72.    Classify the leprosy and mention antileprotic drugs?

73.    Write detailed notes on Dapsone?

74.    List out Various chemotherapeutic Regimens for Leprosy?

75.    Explain the pharmacology of the following

a)Rifampicin b) Clofazimine

76.    Discuss the Multidrug therapy (MDT) for Leprosy?

77.    Discuss the disease caused by Mycobacterium species and their Treatment?

78.    Mention the toxicity of Isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol & Pyrazinamide?

79.    List out two drugs used in treatment of TB and Leprosy?

80.    Discuss the toxic effects of Antileprotic drugs?


Code No: R7204 JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD B.Pharmacy II year - I-Sem. - I Mid - Term Examinations, Aug/Sept. - 2009

PHYSICAL PHARMACY - II Descriptive Exam - Question Bank Unit - I


1.    Define solubility. Discuss the intermolecular forces of attraction between solute &solvent in solubilization.

2.    Explain about the factors affecting the solubilization of gases in liquids.

3.    Define ideal & real solutions. Explain the effect of internal pressure on the solubility of liquids in liquids.

4.    Define complete & partial miscibility with examples. Describe the influence of temperature and foreign substances on mutual solubility of binary mixtures.

5.    Explain different methods for enhancing solubility of solids in liquids.

6.    Write the equation for an ideal solution of a solid in liquid (explain all terms in eq) and its limitations.

7.    Derive an equation for the mole fraction solubility of a nonpolar or moderately polar solute in non ideal solutions.

8.    Define solubility parameter. Write the limitations of solubility parameter.

9.    Explain in detail about extended Hildebrand solubility approach.

10.    Explain the effect of temperature on solubility of strong electrolytes.

11.    Calculate the solubility of weak electrolytes as influenced by pH & surfactants.

12.    State & explain distribution law and its limitations. How it is modified when the solute undergoes association in one of the phases and dissociation in other solvents.

13.    State and explain Henrylaw. Write its applications.

14.    Describe ideal solution of solids in in liquid. write the method for determining the molar heat of fusion of solute

15.    Describe the factors influencing solubility of solids in liquids.

16.    Derive the modification of distribution law when the solute undergoes molecular association in one of the phases.

17.    Define solubility & partition coefficient. Explain how partition coefficient effects the preservative action of weak acids in oil in water emulsions

18.    Describe the effect of partition coefficient on the drug absorption and drug action.

19.    Define diffusion process. what are the laws that governs the diffusion process. Explain ficklaws with appropriate mathematical expressions.

20)    a) Define solubility product.

b) The measured solubility of silver chloride in water at 20c is 1.12*10 5 mole/lt. this is also the concentration of silver ion and the chloride ion because silver chloride as a strong electrolyte, is nearly completely dissociated. Calculate the solubility product of this salt.


21)    Define complexation. Classify and define different types of complexes with suitable examples. Describe briefly about metal complexes.

22)    Define and classify organic molecular complexes. Describe the forces that hold together organic molecular complexes and give examples

23)    What are inclusion compounds. Discuss briefly about the cyclodextrins

24)    What are the methods to analyze the complexes. Discuss briefly about two methods.

25)    Describe the factors affecting complexation.

26)    Discuss about the following

a)    Chelates

b)    Polymer complexes

27)    Discuss briefly about

a) Inorganic complexes b) Clathrates

28)    Discuss the uses of cyclodextrins in the field of pharmacy.

29)    Write about

a) Quinhydrone complex b) Picric acid complex c) Drug complex

30)    Describe the solubility method and distribution method for the analysis of complexes

31)    Discuss about the following

a)    Channel lattice type complexes

b)    Layer type complex

c)    Macromolecular complexes

32)    Define metal complex. Write briefly about the inorganic complexes and chelates

33)    Discuss the following

a) Molecular sieves b) Cyclodextrins

34)    Describe the methods that are used to analyse the complexes. Write about pH titration method.

35)    Discuss the various factors which affect the complexation and protein binding.

36)    Write about various forces that are involved in organic molecular complexes with examples

37)    Define complexation and write about its applications

38)    Write about

a)    Monomolecular inclusion complexes

b)    Charge transfer complex in organic molecular complex

39)    Define the three classes of complexes with suitable examples

40)    Describe chelates and their physical properties


41)    Define the order of a chemical reaction. Derive the Equation for first order kinetics with example. Discuss the salient features of it.

42)    What is meant by order of a chemical reaction. Discuss about zero order reaction with suitable example.

43)    Define the Rate & order of the reaction. Explain these with suitable examples.

44)    Define the half life of Drugs. Discuss the importance of it. Derive its equation for zero order reaction.

45)    Discuss about the purpose of stability testing of drugs with examples.

46)    what are the specific reaction rate constant. how do you obtain first order reaction rate constant. derive the equation.

47)    What is meant by second order reaction. Explain with example. Add a note on the pseudo first order reaction.

48)    What are the various methods for determination of the order of reactions.

49)    What is graphical method for identification of order of a chemical reaction. Discuss with example.

50)    Explain about the substitution method for identification of order of reaction with examples.

51)    What is meant of half-life equation? Explain it for various types of orders of reaction. how is it useful in the identification of an order.

52)    What is Arhenius equation. Explain it & add a note on its applications.

53)    Explain the effect of temperature on Chemical reaction.

54)    What is Energy of activation. How do you calculate it? explain.

55)    What is meant by shelf life of drugs. How do you determine it for drugs. Explain any two methods.

56)    What is meant by Accelerated stability testing of Drugs? Explain

57)    What are the limitations of accelerated stability analysis. Explain.

58)    Explain about the collision theory.


Code No: R7204

59)    State and explain about Transition State Theory.

60)    How do drugs decompose. Explain briefly with suitable examples.

61)    What are the various degradation pathways of drugs. Explain how you prevent them with suitable examples.

62)    What are the various degradation pathways of drugs. Explain.

63)    What is meant by Stability of drugs. How do you stabilize the drugs from degradation. Explain.

64)    What type of drugs are prone for Hydrolysis? How do you prevent it. Explain with suitable examples.

65)    How do you prevent drugs from oxidation? Mention various approaches with suitable examples.



66)    Define surface tension and interfacial tensions and write about their applications in pharmaceutical sciences

67)    List out the methods which are used to determine the surface and interfacial tensions. Discuss briefly about the capillary rise method

68)    Discuss about Dunoy ring method

69)    Write about spreading coefficient and its applications

70)    What are surface active agents? Discuss about the HLB. Classify surfactants based on HLB value.

71)    Describe the applications of surfactants in pharmacy

72)    What is surface free energy? Explain how it is related to surface tension.

73)    Describe different types of adsorption isotherms

74)    What is interfacial phenomenon? Explain the different types of interfaces and mention the factors affecting them.

75)    Explain briefly about the adsorption at solid interfaces

76)    Write about the importance of HLB in the selection of surfactants in pharmaceutical dispersion system.

77)    Explain in detail about the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms

78)    What is wetting phenomena? explain

79)    Explain the concept of HLB. Describe the methods for the estimation of HLB value

80)    Describe interfacial tension. Explain any one method for its determination.

81)    Explain the phenomenon of electrical double layer formation at the interface

82)    Discuss about electrical properties of interfaces

83)    Define Nernst and Zeta potentials. Write the applications of zeta potential in pharmacy.

84)    Write the applications of surfactants based on HLB scale

85)    What is surface free energy.derive the surface tension from the pressure difference across the curved interfaces.


Code No: BP415

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD B. Pharmacy IV year - I-Sem.- I Mid - Term Examinations, Aug/Sept. - 2009


Descriptive Exam - Question Bank Unit - I

1.    List out the various factors effecting drug action. Discuss at least three factors about their role in the study of drug action?

2.    Write short notes on bioisosterism?

3.    Outline the various theories of drug action?

4.    Write note on receptor theories of drug action?

5.    Write short notes on quantitative aspects of drug action?

6.    Write about drug-receptor interactions?

7.    Write notes on G-Protein coupled receptors?

8.    What are factors affecting drug-receptor interactions?

9.    Write short notes on computer aided drug design?

10.    Write about CADD and molecular modeling?

11.    Write notes on Quantam mechanics and Molecular mechanics?

12.    Write a applications of molecular modeling in drug design?

13.    Write short notes on Q.S.A.R and its applications?

14.    Write a short note on Hansch approach?

15.    Write a short note on Free Wilson Analysis?

16.    Write a short notes on statistical methods used in QSAR?

17.    Write short notes on TSAR?


18.    Write a short note on various mechanisms of drug action?

19.    Write about the mechanism of drugs on enzymes?

20.    Classify sulfa drugs with examples?

21.    Write the structure of sulphaguanidine and explain their synthesis?

22.    Describe the S.A.R of sulfa drugs?

23.    Discuss the mode of action and uees of sulphonamides ?

24.    Write notes on historical development of sulfonamides as antibacterial?

25Write general synthesis of sulphonamides?

26.    Write a short notes on pharmacological and chemical aspects of any two sulphadrugs?

27.    Write a synthesis, uses and mechanism of action of sulphamethoxazole?

28.    Give the synthesis and uses of trimethoprim?

29.    Write the structure, synthesis and uses of any sulphadrug?

30.    Write short notes on cotrimoxazole?

31.    Write short notes on metabolism of drugs?

32.    Write note on the factors affecting the drug metabolism?

33.    Write short notes on Phase-I reactions?

34.    What is the role of CYP-450 enzyme in drug metabolism?

35.    Write short notes on conjugation reactions?


36.    Write short notes on chemistry of neurotransmitters?

37.    What are Sedatives and Hypnotics? And how they are differentiated?

38.    Define the term sedative and hypnotic? Classify sedative and hypnotic drugs with one example each?

39.    Write about barbiturates their S.A.R & M.A.O?


Code No: BP415

40.    Write the synthesis of phenobarbitol and Diazepam?

41.    Write a detail note on structure activity relation of short acting barbiturates?

42.    Write a note on phenobarbital-struture, chemical name, synthesis, therapeutic uses?

43.    Write short notes on short acting barbiturates?

44.    Give the mechanism of action of any two classes of sedatives?

45.    Define antianxiety agents and classify them by giving examples?

46.    Write a note on mechanism of action of anxiolytic drugs?

47.    Write about benzodiazepines their S.A.R and general mode of action?

48.    Give a detailed account of diazepam including its structure, nomenclature, pharmacokinetics, synthesis and uses?

49.    Write note on alprazolam structure, chemical name, synthesis and therapeutic uses?

50.    Give the different types of psychopharmacological agents with clinical uses?

51.    Write note on neuroleptics and give its classification with examples and structures?

52.    Write note on phenonthiazines including S.A.R &M.A.O?

53.    Write the structure, chemical name, synthesis and therapeutic uses of chlorpromazine?

54.    Write about butyrophenones and write notes on their S.A.R?

55.    Write a note on haloperidol structure, chemical name, synthesis and therapeutic uses?

56.    Write notes on clozapine structure, chemical name, synthesis and therapeutic uses?

57.    Write note on oxypertine with its structure, chemical name, S.A.R and synthesis?

58.    Define and classify epilepsy?

59.    What are anti-epileptic drugs classify them with examples?

60.    Write the structure, MAO, synthesis and uses phenytoin sodium?

61.    Give an account of structure, mode of action, synthesis and therapentic uses of carbamazepine?

62.    Write the synthesis of valproic acid and ethosuximide?

63.    Write a note on the psychological disorder depression?

64.    Define antidepressants? Classify antidepressant drugs gives suitable examples?

65.    Write a note on the monoamino oxidase inhibitors?

66.    Write short notes on tricyclic antidepreeants?

67.    Write the synthesis of imipramine and fluoxetine?

68.    Write notes on selective serotonin reuptate inhibitors (SSRI) Class of antidepressants?

69.    Write the synthesis of doxepine and sertraline?


70.    Define general anesthetics? Write their important properties?

71.    Write a note on stages of anesthesia?

72.    Give the classification of general anesthetics with examples?

73.    Write about general anesthetics S.A.R and M.A.O?

74.    Write the synthesis and uses of halothane and ketamine?

75.    Define local anesthetics? Add a short note on ideal properties of local anesthetics?

76.    Write short note on various methods of administration on local anesthetics and uses of each?

77.    Classify local anesthetics giving examples?

78.    Write short note on mechanism of action of local anesthetics agents?

79.    Discuss the S.A.R of local anesthetics agents?

80.    Formulate the synthesis of Lidocaine and Benzocaine?

81.    Explain the mechanism of action of two classes of local anesthetics?

82.    write short note on the following aspects of local anesthetics a) Pharmacokinetics b) Adverse effects c) Therapeutic uses



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